South Africa is taking on water, and nobody is bailing. It’s time to choose: get in a life raft, or go down with the ship. A new Cape independence group aims to bring visibility, credibility, and funding to the secessionist movement.

The Cape Independence Advocacy Group was formed in May this year as a political lobby group. It hopes to build on the pioneering work of several secessionist movements, and bring the idea of a breakaway of the Western Cape from South Africa into the mainstream.

It doesn’t seek to compete with the existing organisations, like the Cape Party, the United Liberty Alliance, and CapeXit, and doesn’t agree with them on all matters, but hopes to foster greater publicity, better cooperation and a broader strategic focus.

Its aims are to bring visibility to the case for independence for the Western Cape and influence political parties to take the issue seriously. Its primary lobbying target is the Democratic Alliance (DA), since it has reliably won majorities in both the Western Cape province and its capital city, Cape Town, for more than a decade, and in a 2019 survey, two thirds of its voters expressed support for Cape independence.

In a recent editorial in these pages, one of the group’s founders, Phil Craig, asks a simple question: ‘Why would it be in the best interests of the people of the Cape to remain in a relationship with South Africa?’

Well, let’s see. It imports electricity from the rest of South Africa. Sometimes. When there is electricity to import. It gets tourists from the rest of South Africa. Sometimes. When tourism is legal. It gets bulk water infrastructure from the rest of South Africa. No, wait, it didn’t, so Cape Town almost ran dry. It gets healthcare… no, that’s a provincial function, which is why the Western Cape has dealt with the Covid-19 pandemic without its hospitals being overrun.

The province gets… nothing, really, from South Africa that couldn’t be obtained just as easily across a national border.

South Africa is a colonial construct

The Union of South Africa in 1910 was a colonial construct, imposed upon its people by a British Act of Parliament. Its constituent parts were won for the British Empire by conquest or annexation. There was nothing natural in combining the four colonies that preceded the Union, just as there was no natural reason to include what is now Botswana, Zimbabwe, Zambia and Malawi, all of which at one time were part of British South Africa.

By virtue of racist minority rule, first as a self-governing dominion of the British Empire, and later, as a sovereign Republic under Afrikaner nationalist rule, the country held together geographically. Yet after a honeymoon period for the ‘Rainbow Nation’ which is now only a distant memory, its various peoples have never been further apart than they are today.

Political parties actively foment nationalist fervour, tribalism, and racial animosity, and the fires are fanned by left-wingers who dominate the media and humanities faculties. Meanwhile, half of the Western Cape’s population weren’t white enough under Apartheid, and aren’t black enough now.

The idea of South Africa as a unitary state exists in the Constitution, but one look at the languages clause in the same document should disabuse anyone of the notion that it is really one nation.

That South Africa is a country of great diversity, however, is not sufficient reason to believe that it would be better off as two or more co-existing but separate states. Non-racialism is a laudable (and liberal) ideal.

Nelson Mandela’s dream of a Rainbow Nation might have come to fruition if the ANC had ruled the country wisely. It has not. And that is sufficient reason to believe secession will benefit the Western Cape.

Rotten to the core

It is common cause that the ruling party and the governments it runs at national, provincial, and municipal level are rotten to the core. News24 editor Adriaan Basson quotes an unnamed senior government official: ‘All the tenders are corrupt. Each one of them. Everybody knows this.’

Indeed, everyone does. There is also no hope that corruption will ever be rooted out. We get endless promises, but even the high-profile Ramaphorians have become disillusioned with the president.

On Saturday, the ANC’s highest decision-making body determined that it was unable to hold its own members accountable for corruption, and would not countenance an investigation by an outsider, even if that outsider was a former president, elder statesman, and loyal ANC member.

Instead of prosecuting corrupt officials, top ANC leaders – themselves implicated in corruption and nepotism scandals of prodigious scale – simply redeploy or reinstate them. The worst penalty one might expect as a corrupt government official is an extended period of paid leave, before all seems to be forgiven.

President Cyril Ramaphosa’s recent speeches against corruption reminds me of an old proverb: an empty cart rattles loudly.

Sometimes, a crisis can bring a nation together. Faced with a common threat, they might choose to forget old divisions and come together to fight it. The Covid-19 pandemic, however, has not done so.

Covid-19 exposed the ANC’s failures

It has exposed the ANC government’s fatal weaknesses. Instead of serving the long-suffering people of South Africa, the healthcare response has become a feeding frenzy for ANC cadres and cronies.

Public trust, already at an all-time low thanks to economic mismanagement and the capture of virtually all the machinery of state by corrupt crony networks, was eroded even further by a series of harsh and irrational lockdown decisions.

Government arbitrarily divided the economy into ‘essential’ and ‘non-essential’ categories, neglecting the fact that every business is essential to its owners and employees, and that a modern economy is so interwoven that shutting down any part of it has ruinous knock-on effects on the rest of the economy.

The patent absurdity of some of the rules made a mockery of the government’s lockdown response. Government restricted outdoor activities when almost all Covid-19 transmission occurs indoors and remaining indoors in small, cramped shacks is likely to exacerbate contagion. It banned small pleasures like tobacco even though the preponderance of scientific evidence points to the fact that smokers are less likely to fall ill from Covid-19. It legalised religious gatherings and casinos, but continued to prohibit domestic tourism, even though the latter could easily be conducted safely, while the former are hotspots for outbreaks. It caved to the demands of the taxi industry, which is likely the most effective spreader of the virus.

Instead of treating citizens like adults, educating them on infection control procedures, and strongly recommending preventive measures, the ANC government responded the only way it knows how: by dictatorial force.

The minutes of its decisions were classified, and experts on its own advisory panel openly expressed frustration that government was acting against the scientific advice they presented. The entire army was deployed against the very people it is supposed to defend, with deadly consequences. While criminals were being let out of jails, hundreds of thousands of people were arrested and criminally charged for the most petty of lockdown-related offences.

The prohibitions have turned untold numbers of previously law-abiding citizens into criminals. People started brewing or distilling their own liquor. People who used to work in hospitality or entertainment became cigarette dealers overnight. Restaurants flouted the prohibition on the sale of alcohol, some by deploying subterfuge, and others quite openly. Old ladies who couldn’t survive on their pensions alone joined the criminal underworld by secretly renting out their home-sharing properties. In large swathes of South Africa, lockdown regulations were ignored wholesale.

Government entirely squandered any trust and respect it might have enjoyed at the beginning of the pandemic, when the president was (mistakenly, in my view) lionised for his brave and decisive action.

Doubling down on failed policies

When the catastrophic consequences of lockdown – millions of people unemployed, thousands of businesses bankrupt, millions of people malnourished or starving – became evident, the ANC government promised interventions to relieve the stress it had placed on the economy.

All of those interventions, however, simply doubled down on the very economic policies that had already brought the country to its knees prior to the pandemic. It promised more social engineering to enforce an idealised demographic representivity in private companies. It promised more state control over businesses. It promised more wealth redistribution. It promised more state-owned enterprises. It promised more debt.

It issued more tenders, designed to enrich favoured middlemen. Family members of government officials suddenly became specialist providers of medical supplies, while a video doing the rounds on social media shows personal protective equipment having been dumped in a river in Gauteng.

Government has been unable to use a field hospital built for free by the private sector in the Eastern Cape, because it could not staff it, and the province has since started to export patients to neighbouring provinces for medical attention. Whatever you do, don’t call them refugees.

To find nurses, government turned to NGOs, who in turn approached private nursing agencies, who hired nurses at half the usual pay so that everyone up the chain could ‘cover their costs’. When these nurses got sick, they went unpaid while they waited in enforced quarantine for up to ten days for their own Covid-19 tests to be processed, a delay which effectively rendered the tests meaningless in any case.

South Africa is dying

The dreadful inefficiency and ineffectiveness of government were laid bare for all to see. The government promises to climb out of the hole it dug for itself by expropriating land and taxing the rich, but the rich are either fleeing South Africa in droves, or their fortunes are inextricably tied up in the performance of South African companies. People rarely sit on piles of unused cash. If companies shut down and the economy crashes, so does the wealth of ‘rich’ people. Taxing what little remains only hastens the demise of the productive economy.

There is no hope of recovery. There is no hope of a ‘new economy’ brimming with ‘state-led growth’. South Africa is dying, and it’s not because of Covid, it’s because of the stubbornly authoritarian, socialist ideology of the ruling party.

Meanwhile, the national government and elements within the ANC have attempted to undermine the success of the Western Cape government, led by the DA. National government failed to react to the Cape Town water crisis for years, although bulk water infrastructure is a national competence, and then swooped in to ‘rescue’ the DA government from its apparent failure.

The DA has for years accused, with reason, ANC agitators of attempting to make DA-run provinces and municipalities ‘ungovernable’ during episodes of unrest involving labour disputes, service delivery, or land invasions, and even sabotage.

It harms the ANC, politically, if the Western Cape succeeds under rule by the DA, and on almost every measure, the Western Cape outperforms ANC-run provinces by a large margin.

The mood seems right

I have, in the past, and even quite recently, expressed skepticism of secessionist movements for the Western Cape or some similar geographic region. There are many reasons to doubt they will ever succeed.

Despite international rights of self-determination for individual nations, cultures or language groups, the Constitution establishes South Africa as a unitary state. The ANC will not let the Western Cape go easily. It is a net contributor to the fiscus and to GDP, which not many provinces can say.

There hangs a pall of nationalism, and even racism, over some of the groups associated with secession. The United Liberty Alliance, for example, explicitly uses the Apartheid regime’s motto, Ex Unitate Vires, and describes its constituency in pretty clear racial terms. That offends me.

However, the time may be right to consider the idea of secession more seriously. The mood certainly seems right, among many of the Western Cape’s inhabitants.

New organisations, such as the Cape Independence Advocacy Group, may bring funding, publicity and political momentum to the idea in ways that older, more narrowly-focused groups could not. Another new campaign aims to host a Convention for the Independence of the Cape in 2021. It claims to have registered over 400 000 members in just over a year.

I’m coming around to the idea that Cape secession might be the only way to save South Africa’s only reasonably well-run province from the road to serfdom, from which the national ANC government will not waver.

For me, the arguments are not about racial, cultural or language identity, or historical coherence. They are purely socio-economic.

On socio-economic grounds, I cannot give a convincing answer to Craig’s question: ‘Why would it be in the best interests of the people of the Cape to remain in a relationship with South Africa?’

Since I cannot, I must agree with him: the time for secession has arrived.

The views of the writer are not necessarily the views of the Daily Friend or the IRR

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Image by Sharon Ang from Pixabay

This article was amended to correct membership numbers from the My Independence campaign.


    • The ULA’s motto ‘Ex Unitate Vires’ has nothing to do with nationalism or racism as insinuated by [offended] Ivo Vegter. ‘Ex Unitate Vires’ literally means ‘from unity, strength’ and is a Latin phrase adopted in 1910, which was originally translated as ‘Union is Strength’ and was revised in 1961 to mean ‘Unity is Strength’.

  1. Another alternative would be to fight for a greater degree of provincial autonomy. KZN, Gauteng and the Western Cape could join forces and each demand a form of confederation. Lesotho, Swati and Botswana already have their “independence” from the ANC alliance. As much as the Kapenaars deserve independence so too do the Zulus and the polyglot Gautengers deserve their independence.
    Leave the ANC to mismanage the rest of “SA”.

    • No. The ANCEFF can change provincial boundries tomorrow, or decide to put the WC under administration for whatever reason, at a whim. The WC is vulnerable under an increasingly hostile and intolerant and wounded ANCEFF. Permanent separation must happen, urgently.

    • Here’s yet another idea: How about effective opposition? The DA has imploded under the boskerk preacher, and are not exactly looking any brighter since. The Purple Cows made a valiant if misguided effort to return to classical liberal principles. But nobody is doing the groundwork, by capturing municipal elections

  2. Ivo Vegter you are so ill-informed, consider another job please as by opening your mouth you proof your skills in journalism. Won’t even bother comment further on your insight…

    • William, your comment also leaves much to be desired, I dare say. It sounds more like an emotional outburst: Why state: “Won’t even bother comment further on your insight”? if that is indeed the idea of commenting, i.e. to generate healthy debate, incl even a radical opposite thought?
      In that light, Mr Vegter’s retort that he knows how to proofread, is spot-on. Getting to understand the difference between ‘journalism’ and ‘opinion piece’ is good start, dear William.

    • William go do your research before making comments. This is an excellent article by Ivo which proving his skills in journalism. All truth passes through three stages. First, it is ridiculed. Second, it is violently opposed. Third, it is accepted as being self-evident. You are at the stage of ridiculing the idea of Cape independence.

    • Sure. That mansion provides many decent jobs in housekeeping, gardening and maintenance. It raises surrounding property values by the prestige of having a foreign head of state as a neighbour. If he wants to visit the Cape of Good Hope on holiday and splurge on luxuries why should we object? It’s not like he’ll be spending our tax money.

      • Would we allow him citizenship though? Bearing in mind his appalling human rights abuses. We must have standards as a newly born nation.

        • No, absolutely no citizenship for any criminal. The ANC President has deliberately destroyed MILLIONS of lives. Peoples livelihoods have been destroyed, their dreams destroyed, their hopes, their security and their health. The ANC President should be prosecuted for crimes against humanity. Along with the rest of his accomplices.

      • As long as you make sure he doesn’t enter your Republic of Good Hope on a diplomatic passport. Otherwise he’ll try and do in your country what he is currently doing in ours, like refusing to employ the legal citizens of your country because the don’t have the skin colour he prefers.

  3. So think of another motto. But let us, from All races, stand together and take our Land. And if you want to call it a barbeque, do that. There is absolutely NO racism here! This is minorities standing up for HUMAN RIGHTS, which NONE of us have under anc government. You are either with us, or against us. And we are NOT racist in any way. But we will have freedom, no corruption, better infrastructure, no load shedding, no water cut off, better economy. Equal rights for everyone. Just because people you don’t like, have the same idea, doesn’t mean its a bad idea. The proof is in the pudding. Go look at Switzerland’s Government, that is basically what we will have. Every person, you included, will have a voice, will have a say in what happens in your Community. Be a voice for your own people. Everyone gets equal voting rights, is equally represented in the government. While you are offended by a latin phrase meaning power in unity, you forget that your life and the life of your loved ones are in danger because of the anc government. The choice is simple: Life and freedom, or oppression and your life in danger under anc government, or immigrate. But STOP spreading hate messages!

    • You do have corruption in the WC. Domestic corruption, nothing to do with the ANC or Pretoria. Switzerland, unlike the WC, has its own culture, and it is not a secession from some other entity, it is a federal republic. This federal republic is based on hundreds of years of canton culture, which could not be undone by sectarian conflicts or Napoleon’s dictatorship. Besides that, the country is set up like Bantustahns of Italian, German, and French speakers. We kinda had that situation here before, and it wasn’t all that popular.

  4. Although I am always for self-determination, this sends chills down my spine. I do not see it will go as easy as was with Czechoslovakia, more likely we will go down the route of Sudan or Yugoslavia.

    • To go on way as Yugoslavia, you will need to be in Europe. In Europe where every “big ” country was looking for peace of PIE. But government of Yugoslavia at that time was divided nationally, religiously… and economy was in similar situation. Corruption on another level. Why it can not be as Yugoslavia is also military state of SA. Yugoslavia had functional arms and trained military in every republic. Even paramilitary nationalistic and religion groups had compulsory military training at some point in their life. SA military will not be really able to oppose WC secession. On the end WC will be probably able to purchase some sort of semi independence in style of SWISS. Unfortunately, it looks to me that everything is for sale in SA (for very low price), even republic, freedom charter…

    • Yes,we don’t have a homogeneous group that will stick together,our geography sucks, and the WC is simply too important to the rest of the country. Asking for Robben Island would be a lot easier.

  5. If secession was ever achieved, the DA would not be the automatic winners of a democratic Western Cape election. People vote for the DA now because its the best alternative to the ANC but with a clean slate, majority of the 80% non-white population of the WC will band together for their own interests.
    That party, which does not exist yet, will be far worse than the ANC…Be careful what you wish for.
    Focus on removing the ANC nationally by having the DA and the rest of the fringe parties signing from the same hymn sheet. If those parties can spread an agreed upon and cooperative message there may be a way forward. Sadly, I suppose that is as likely as the ANC repenting or the Western Cape gaining independence.

    • What are your specific, objective reasons for making a sweeping statement that “That party, which does not exist yet, will be far worse than the ANC”? Especially because you then contradict yourself in your very next sentence. Why will will the parties sing from the same hymn sheet nationally, but not in the WC?

      • “That party” will not be made up of the DA and its allies but of people cut from the same cloth as Patricia De Lille, ‘Gattvol Capetonians’, Rashaad Staggie and Eusebius Mackeiser… It will be a power hungry mob of ‘previously advantaged’ hyenas that sense it will finally be their time to rule.
        My comment was a two parter 1) Post independence government will be worse based solely on demographics. 2) Focus on being part of a national solution.

        • Hi Jack. Can’t see this happening. Why would every other element in the WC suddenly work together? If so, why didn’t they do that in any previous election? Hopefully most people will want a government that can be beneficial to everyone. The ANC has given us an excellent example of how it should not be done and we have seen the consequences. When it comes to government, it should be the best people running the government. It should not be based on race or anything else than excellence. Then everyone will benefit.

      • Because currently the enemy of my enemy, is my friend, but once the common enemy, namely the ANC, is removed/no longer in the picture, there is no reason for me to continue collaborating with my other enemies.

    • Yes, and yet another example of how the WC is caught between a rock and hard place just like the rest of the country. There are very few, if any, who really do believe in the DA. Most DA votes are strategic votes: You don’t vote for the opposition parties, you vote against the terrorist communist party.

      To that end, the WC secession movement is just splintering the opposition even further.

  6. Some questions to think about before proceeding…
    1- Would the WC Secession be a good thing for the rest of SA?
    2- If not, is it ethical to save some from the malfeasance of the ANC, but not those who did not vote ANC/EFF?
    3- What becomes of those whose families remain in SA while the WC becomes its own state? Do they need to uproot their entire lives to go and live in WC or vice versa (causing untold chaos)
    4 – The WC is as much a colonial construct as SA is… so what measures will be used to form its borders?

    As one can deduce from these questions- the counter argument lies in a utilitarian response. Does this make for the most possible good for the most possible people?

    • Mike:

      1. Yes, imagine Zimbabwe crisis without SA next door

      2. Do firefighters save those victims they can save, or do they have a save all or none policy? Is saving some unethical for them?

      3.How did it work with Namibia?

      4. Its borders already exist, but can be adjusted democratically at municipal level when we get to a referendum

        • ANC will foots the bill. WC will not pay tax on National level and thats it. Why do you think GB left EU. They don’t want to pay “membership” for nothing any more.

          • GB has an unique culture, if multi-cultural. Not to mention that the EU idea has been found unpopular whenever a referendum was held. The GB has very little in common with the WC in this scenario, and the ANC has very little in common with the EU. Like them or loathe them, at least the ANC was elected.

    • The western cape has already more power as a province than all the others. You are welcome to remain under a corrupt ANC rule. They have already destroyed the entire economy. The point of no return. If! They lose the election, a coalition with the corrupt EEF the next govt. Secession is the only and last option.

      • Assuming you are referring to power as in electricity, you are correct. But Gauteng has more power as a province than all the others, at least from an economic perspective. GP accounts for about a third of the beloved country’s GDP, while WC accounts for a mere seventh.

  7. Hi Ivo,

    Your article has been forwarded to many of my overseas family and friends. Thank you for perfectly framing the comedy or errors that we’ve been subjected to by our government.

    I was hoping you could share your opinion on independence for Catalonia, Scotland and even Tibet? I think if enough people in a region believe they are better off self-governing, it ends up being more efficient and less centralized. I’m against super-powers in the first place, so why not?

  8. I support this. The whole idea is very appealing but needs to be carefully thought through. Passports for the people of the Cape. if you don’t have a visa you don’t come there without one!

    • The Cape already has ‘passports’. It’s called tourist prices. All the rest of the country has to do is to install a chip on the shoulder tax and we will have our coffers full.

  9. Good Day Ivo,

    Great article.

    Just a correction on My Independence’s Registered Members with the link Another new Campaign. The total of registered members has not accumulated as from the 1st August 2020 it has actually been accumulated over a period of just over a year. The new website My Independence was launched in July 2020. This was discussed with Phil Craig in a recent call received from him. The registration for the Convention CINCA 2021 registration opened on the 1st August 2020. Our official launch will take place later this month. As discussed with Phil Craig we do not aim to compete with any organisation but support the Independence Movement. Our aim is primarily to attract the Mix Coloured Community in the Western Cape and as always we fully advocate for inclusivity of all population groups. We look forward to working with any Organisation that share the same or similar vision. Thank you

  10. Great article Ivo! Well done for honestly assessing what is best for the WC peoples and not getting bogged down with arguments about whether it is fair for SA as a whole. We can always rely on your open-mindedness. I salute your integrity. Now. Lets get this done!

  11. A few things:

    (1) The DA survey seems to confirm a lot about the DA’s so-called classic liberalism. That most vote DA because it functions as a type of minority bulwark and not because they are principled classic liberals.

    (2) That you or the IRR entertain the idea of Cape secession suggest a lot of the criticism of our classic liberals ring valid or can be construed in this manner. An answer to your final question could be because you love this country and you are committed to it and its people. That you belong and see yourself as part of the whole of South Africa and share something in common with its people.

    (3) The classic liberal position increasingly seems to be that if we cannot win things politically we want a court decree, international intervention and now secession. Again, whilst I understand the article and playing with the idea. I can also see how this confirms to some people – especially those classic liberals need to win over – that classic liberalism is more concerned with protecting minority interest / even a sort of reactive politics that deep down just really want whites to remain in charge / set the political rules to feel comfortable.

    (4) Any way, the idea is also pretty idealistic from assuming this can be negotiated from the government to assuming an independent Western Cape will be DA run. Again – it is a bit like the whole classic liberal IMF scenario as well.

    A healthy dose of realism is required specifically the reality that South Africa is not run by whites or liberals. Neither will be an independent Cape. Deep down classic liberals and libertarians continue to suggest that their ideology is really just a fig leave for protecting their identities and bubbles. Unfair? (I happen to think so on some level but let me overstate it for arguments sake). Well how many times does this article talk favorably about the country, its people or mentions any form of compromise / bringing people together?

    It is simply the reason classic liberalism and libertarianism will never be the answer to South Africa – it cannot even hold liberal societies together without the help of some folk conservatism…It is why I think Herman Mashaba and what he is trying to do is the right thing. A narrative that starts with loving this country, its people and trying to find common ground. That would never entertain secession because that is exactly the opposite of the politics they are pursuing…

    • While I do agree that the WC secession movement is merely ‘verkramptes en verknogtes’ trying to protect minority interests, I do not think it is fair to lump these delusional types in with Libertarians or Classical Liberals. Herman Mashaba should not even be considered either, as he has outed himself as a Neoliberal institutional sycophant. You may view his approach as realpolitik, but I view this as a great example of why Libertarians and Classical Liberals are viewed with much scepticism – indeed as a kind of rigor mortis of minorities trying to protect their interests. His actions are unprincipled and authoritarian, and you would be hard pressed to find a Libertarian or Classical Liberal who would still stick up for him.

  12. You contradict yourself. If the goal is to ‘keep whites in charge’, why would anyone suggest the secession of a province in which white people are in the majority? The race card really is getting a little dog-eared.

    There is no doubt that some secessionists are racist. Those that are, are not classical liberals, and their existence doesn’t make the idea of secession racist.

    Perhaps the classical liberals who wish to see the Western Cape secede believe exactly what they claim to believe, namely that secession is the only way to escape the authoritarian, socialist, corrupt path down which the ANC is forcing South Africa. Perhaps they hope secession will enable them to establish a government that hews a little more to liberal principles, with the attendant socio-economic benefits that would entail for all, irrespective of race.

    If you can propose a realistic way in which South Africa can be pulled from the brink, to turn its back on economic policies that consign millions to poverty and hopelessness, I’m sure secessionists would be all ears. As I said, if the ANC had governed wisely, the Rainbow Nation ideal would have come to fruition. It hasn’t, and there is no hope that it ever will.

    • I am suggesting some people want the Western Cape to secede precisely because in your words “white people are the majority”. It suggests – rightly or wrongly – that this is the main motivating factor. Like I said, perhaps unfairly and it is only about what province has the best chance of establishing a classic liberal minded government. (Look I think there are a lot of people that genuinely believe it and are not secret racists deep down – but look at comments sections and what other people also support these views. I find it increasingly difficult to know who are actual liberals and who just support liberal ideas because it protects their interests. I find those who I admired and thought were genuine classic liberals increasingly promote the same reactionary politics that sound closer and closer to just sounding like white identity politics / having no positive vision of anything political in South Africa beyond being left alone).

      I am skeptical if even the Cape secedes that it will establish a classic liberal paradise. I agree classic liberals has perhaps the best chance in the Western Cape province but that just shows the problem with classic liberalism in South Africa. That you need to secede to make it viable – not as classic liberals claim because its government is the most “classic liberal” minded (it definitely helps), but I think actually deep down because they know the demographic makeup / social and political history here has the best prospects of uniting people around classic liberalism. (The DA is in charge for reasons that is not just related to their ideological appeal – else why not translate better elsewhere?).

      This is a point a keep on making, our biggest problem as a country is on this level – too little shared common ground, interest and identity being build on…This article can be read to suggest – you agree – that is why it is better to succeed.

      SA can be more liberal if it first becomes more of a nation and discover enough bonding glue. (Liberalism in South Africa provides no answers or care to it seems for this with its relentless focus on markets, individualism and an increasingly negative political program).

      Back to the argument. The Western Cape has more potential because it is basically with respect to South Africa an minority enclave and can afford to have to make less political compromise, find common ground or talk inclusively with the black majority in the rest of the country. It is why what it takes to govern the Western Cape is chalk & cheese compared to say Pretoria, Johannesburg and even PE.

      It is also why I wonder if you remove the ANC from the equation if you will not find the Western Cape’s politics also wake-up to new political balance of powers.

      This is the biggest problem with some forms of idealist classic liberalism and particularly libertarianism – it is a top-down ideology about how the world should ideally work if everyone can just be persuaded through reason to see the light. That is not how politics work or ever worked…

      • Just to elaborate a bit…

        (1) Minorities. Most are declining relative to black South Africans in terms of a pure political numbers game. Culturally and politically the most significant minority is found in the Afrikaner (organised institutional sense). Moving forward minorities are likely to be less and less of a political entity (demographics / inter-marriage) apart from those that can build strong political identities based on cultural affinity.

        Classic liberalism offer minorities some common bonding glue and bulwark against crude race nationalism, especially in liberal constitutionalism. I think this best explains the DA’s support among minorities. However if it can ultimately stem the tide better than community / cultural efforts like Afriforum and other community organisations remains to be seen. I think the evidence suggest it cannot because ultimately its political legitimacy is not accepted broadly enough. It is also why I think especially Afrikaners could eventually turn to more narrow political parties as they see the broader minority liberal coalition failing (why the DA is vrying so hard now to Afrikaners) to stop meaningful cultural and political change.

        It suffers from a further problem that other minorities might rightly feel that they don’t want to be led / overtaken by Afrikaners or white liberals again. (Despite significant support from the two biggest minorities it remains notable how little they are represented in top DA leadership structures) Hence – my skepticism over Cape Independence and the DA’s prospects for being a natural uncontested government. Remember it will contain a significant black minority as well…

        (2) The majority do actually rule. The reality is the minorities and their future depend largely on how they are accommodated by the majority. This presents minorities with at least two broader strategies. Negotiate and survive as defensive identities (Solidarity’s plan) and in enclaves. Two, find common ground / way of working together in a more positive relationship with the majority. (BtW there are in-between strategies). The same applies to opposition politics if you like in terms of their political offer (defensive / inclusive).

        For classic liberalism the offer has always been individual rights. Something plainly and crudely put on most significant political issues over the last 25y translated into protecting white interest – at least from how it was defined by black nationalists or the media. (But it remains the biggest general perception obstacle for the DA and classic liberals who often wittingly / unwittingly play into it…but regardless a significant number of people simply don’t trust the DA on these grounds – no amount of reason / logic changes this…)

        An alternative however is to look closer to something resembling a modus vivendi than trying to establish ultimately a right’s based framework. Which any way will just be fought through transforming the courts / changing the constitution leaving liberals with no recourse and little political capital – this is / will happen the more the courts are used to settle politics.

        Like I said, liberal constitutionalism will only remain a bulwark as long as it receives broader political support / legitimacy. (Political legitimacy of course being not a function of reasoning only but as much of trust and emotions).

        Modus vivendi implies trying to find working relationships and common ground (ground level / politics of social relations) – a much more pragmatic approach than an ideological approach. It can be again done from the perspective of protective identities or within a more inclusive shell (see later) with again some middle-ways.

        (3) Value pluralism vs liberal politics. Value pluralism implies that we cannot agree on all the different “good lives” but we can work towards political institutions and agreements that try to find working solutions. It can resemble a mostly liberal order but it is not imposed – it arises from political negotiation and settlement (BTW how I think the history of liberal orders actually came into being). So it is not trying to enforce the typical liberal framework on everyone through a constitution, judges or turning everyone into liberal identities unless it follows organically from political negotiation.

        It implies accepting South Africa is mostly what the majority view South Africa as constituting political legitimacy. South Africa is not a liberal European country. Whatever aspects of Western culture and liberal politics are found in South Africa will always (and rightly) be assimilated into the dominant culture. Liberals might be right – but it actually doesn’t really matter in politics if people cannot be persuaded not just rationally but in their heart / bones.

        The same with minorities – they will be assimilated in the bigger national picture and their identities cannot be divorced from the broader society without some settlement. (Again I don’t think progressive liberal multiculturalism mostly works because it often isn’t negotiate politically nor btw do I think liberal individualism is immune from this either in just leaving things in a type of anti-politics of its own…)

        (4) Vehicles. So a possible vehicle for finding common ground can be as defensive identities (Solidarity or even a principled liberal party) constantly negotiating. This could work and seem to be a model that is fairly popular for both Afrikaner politics and classic liberal politics that for instance look at things like coalitions. However, at the end of the day it is still mostly protective and negative politics in the sense that it doesn’t see itself “winning” or being party of a majority programme for a considerable time to come (likely ever).

        An alternative vehicle is starting from the premise of accepting some common first person plural – “we”. A political vehicle that says we love this country, its people and all feel we share a common sense of belonging and a sizeable loyalty / pride / love of some aspects of this “we”. We don’t, cannot and will never agree on all aspects of what constitutes the good life and the right politics – but we agree enough to be committed to finding working solution where we can.

        This is the most realistic version of national identity / shared commitment that can be build upon. Not the liberal version or the hard African nationalist – both that are top down starting with an ideology and trying to convince people of its merits. One that accepts first what South Africa is and works to build something resembling a rainbow from that reality. It will be messy, evolving and it will be contradictory at times. But it is organic and rooted in negotiation and engagement.

        It means accepting for minorities that there are dominant identities, values and tradition that will set the tone, but precisely because they are not threatened for majorities that they can accommodate others. It doesn’t try and create a new identity for everyone or to pretend that they don’t matter / can be just left alone. All versions of liberalism in South Africa.

        Liberalism in practice doesn’t negotiate it imposes liberal rights – after all that is the logical conclusion of universal reason. (It is no surprise it quickly turn un-organic as courts and the internal logic of liberalism just grants more individual rights and weaken any need for social negotiation under negative rights libertarian versions).

        Politically it means start with a pragmatic assessment of common ground, rather than ideology. Wait people will shout – but you need some guiding principles not to become the MM DA. Yes – correct. But, the problem was he was trying to turn a liberal party into a more conservative party. I am getting to it below, the point here is simply drawing the ideology from a more organic base assessment of South Africa.

        The DA could go in this direction – again? – but I think it is reasonable to say not without diluting their liberalism and getting the same mess again…Ditto the IRR and others that are committed to a liberal ideal regardless of its prospects. More realistically is probably for the vehicle to start out less liberal but become more liberal (internally with a coalition partner). Again I think this is actually how liberalism developed and is properly understood – unless we are talking French Revolutionary radical liberalism – but I am not sure if an IMF bailout is going to be it 🙂

        Let’s see what the People’s Dialogue offer, but I think their fundamental departure points sound closer: (1) love of country / common bonds (“we”) / (2) pragmatism (messy, contradictory and compromise is politics) / (3) not blind and prepared to talk about race and social realities as part of political negotiation (they should drop non-racialism a meaningless term); (4) ordinary people matter (bottom-up vs top-down ideology) (5) prepared to talk about religion, communities, borders and a host of things that are important to people across the board.

        In terms of ideological guiding principles that can be extracted from these politics and what they have stated they seem to be conservative right in common language. (Ideology mattering of course a lot more to intellectuals / war of ideas types / politcos than ordinary voters) A natural challenge to the ANC conservative left electorate. Fighting for the conservative majority of South Africa. Under this scenario I can see real economic reform and change…

        That all said – failing something along these lines – protective identities / politics is a reasonable alternative if not a governing one…

        • I’m not exactly sure what you are trying to say. I have read most of your essays above, stating a lot of theories, mostly sounding very negative, but I still don’t know what you are proposing. Do you think it is a good idea for the WC to try to secede or do you think it will be better to remain one country under ANC rule? That’s the question at this stage. All the details and possible pitfalls is something that can be sorted out in time. There are people that dedicated the last couple of years on these projects and I for one think it is worth looking into.

          • me too without a doubt because no.1 we cannot continue with a govt. that says we will investigate corruption and then does nothing i mean good Lord look at the arms deal,look at the world cup soccer corruption,look at the health system ,look at the Police, well just look at every government dept. all corrupt from the top .Does one THINK they are going to name,jail & get the money back.?? Never.!! AND it will not stop to many top people involved so if one cannot immigrate this is the way to keep the rotten ANC out we were misled by the previous nationalist govt.& the angelic Mandela – has anyone seen the clip[ circulating where in a speech he says quite clearly states “This is where the corruption stops meaning the corrupt nationalists ” (hope he is turning in his grave now)” We were all prepared to forgive & forget but unfortunately most of the ANC cannot or will not so if they will not let them have it & we can start all over again which is something history proves we can do it all over the world it has been done with great success.Its never to late & after all what harm can come of it .?? The western cape is a beautiful country.I have so much to say but so little time.

          • There is absolutely zero chance of the WC breaking away. We are stuck in this together and have to find answers together. That is my main point.

  13. Considering how the courts have supported the national government even before its quest to have the dumbest lockdown in the world (with the exception of High Court judge Hans Fabricius), secession is unlikely to succeed via the legal route. Chances are an attempt at secession will eventually involve armed conflict and good luck with enduring bombardment from G5 and G6 artillery systems. I for one am glad to still have dual citizenship, even though back in 2001 it gave morons at SA Military Intelligence wet dreams about catching a spy that never was, because I’ll be out of here first chance I get- preferably to a First World country, but push comes to shove, Romania will also do. Time came long ago to bail out. The only thing that was lacking was money, not desire. Who knows, maybe I’ll win the Powerball or Lotto this week, then I can tell the bored Home Affairs official at the airport Alpha Mike Foxtrot on my way to the plane…

    • Consent is not needed from either the courts or the ruling government to succeed. Secession is an international right and only needs to be claimed along the correct channels. The process can take anything from 5 to 10 years to get off the ground. To my knowledge the only group working towards secession to have completed a large part of the required process, is the United Liberty Alliance (
      And no, the ULA’s motto Ex Unitate Vires has nothing to do with nationalism or racism as insinuated by [offended] Ivo Vegter. Ex Unitate Vires literally means ‘from unity, strength’ and is a Latin phrase adopted in 1910, which was originally translated as “Union is Strength”. It was revised in 1961 to mean “Unity is Strength” and replaced in 2000 by ” ! ke e : / xarra / / ke ” ( Xam : Unity Through Diversity ” ). – “Unity Through Diversity” ??

  14. The incontrovertible realities of SA are:
    1. A govt incapable of managing the economy, a govt incapable of managing state owned entities, a govt incapable to deliver basic services, everything govt touches is destroyed, a govt disregarding minority groups.
    2. Blatantly dishonest corrupt govt officials are not prosecuted. Minorities eg the Cape Coloureds have been crushed. The appalling state of government’s finances means further tax increases. The state has failed and is unable to function in the interests of the people.
    3. It is naive to think that or hope that this mess can be saved by the ANC or that they will ever get their act together or that the ANC will be removed from office by a general election.
    4. ”We have become a society that creates, rewards and protects thieves, parasitic, ambitious and greedy thieves with an insatiable lust for money, and an aversion to honest work and creativity.” (Anthony Turton)
    5. Why must the people of the Cape be subject to an abusive regime of criminals?
    6. One thing is certain and that is that there will be change. We must control and take charge of that change. The positive thing is that by destroying everything the govt has given us an opportunity to create something new.
    7. Govt cannot fix the mess they have created. Why keep on bashing your head against an economic illiterate government which is so willfully hellbent on pursuing failed policies?
    8. Secession is the future where minorities can enjoy their basic human rights, without domination and oppression. Independence of those regions where minorities are in fact the majority, must be demanded.
    9. Cape independence will force the rest of the country to move towards a federal system of government.
    10. Cape independence is an idea for which the time has come and its support is growing by the day judging from daily conversations with common decent people who have had enough.
    11. Cape independence is not a racist thing: It is about taking control and making a part of the country work efficiently for its citizens.

    • Andries, unfortunately secession, or independence, or anything not approved 100% by ANC will be pointless. As soon Cape is seen to successfully advancing they’d march right in and you’d be back to square one. Before they marched right in however you’d be swamped with mass migration of people looking for a better life, preferably free & subsidised by government (tax payers). The only way you could possibly achieve anything would to ser the Cape adrift as an island with no international borders. That’s not going to happen either I’m afraid so—————?.

      • It’s not true. The ANC does not have to give permission. There are processes that must be followed for the international community to accept it. If those processes are followed it can be done without the ANC’s approval.

        • Yes, Dean you are correct. We do not need to bow to the ANC. Once the legal requirements are met, independence must be demanded. It is not a question of whether the ANC will “allow” it. Due to internal strife the ANC has lost control of the affairs of the country and there has never been a better time to push for independence.

  15. Ivo, thanks for a well articulated article that contributes to confirming a plainly logical case for the political separation of present day South Africa.

    I particularly agree with your point that this is a socioeconomic issue – in line with my previous comments on separation where I suggested that there are two irreconcilable political and socioeconomic value systems in South Africa as evidenced predictably and consistently by our election results.

    While personally in favour of a national debate on this issue as I believe that the position of minorities – which seems to be a highly sensitive issue that commentators prefer to gloss over – is integral to separation, I have to agree with Phil that the Western Cape is a good and practical start.

    Having spent some decades on the continent examining its hotspots I am extremely mindful of the calls for caution lest violence accompany self-determination as well as Jack’s valid comments that a “power-hungry mob” may hijack the political process – hence my lengthy reference to the Czechoslovakia scenario. I would suggest the Cape Advocacy Group thoroughly analyse and engage the role players on the processes, both internal and international, that led to the successful “velvet divorce”. Perhaps the IIR could opinion on this issue as a viable model for South African separation.

    I previously mentioned that self-determination was discussed during CODESA. The Nelson Mandela Foundation is the curator of the relevant memorandums of understanding and other documentation. Thankfully institutional memory still exists to confirm this issue. This should at least give some legitimacy to any self-determination initiative.

    However it is the Dinokeng Scenarios of 2008/2009 that form a post-1994 and relatively recent credible baseline if not foundation for political self-determination where as I have previously stated the working group indentied as scenario #4 that in the absence of inclusive government by 2020 South Africans (minorities) would “walk apart”. May I suggest that this little publicized but high-profile gathering should likewise be relooked and reexamined by the IRR’s constitutional boffins.

    There does seem to be great interest in this debate. People I engage with are generally supportive but are also concerned with the “how” of this matter. Sadly but understandably race is also an issue. Perhaps in the near future (hopefully) townhall sessions should be held to allow the public to identify and engage with the proponents of separation.

    Thanks to both the Cape Advocacy Group for their valiant effort and to IRR for providing a credible and courageous platform for debating this issue.

  16. Very interesting reading.
    I was asking myself for long time why and when they will do it. There will be many problems as well… How to get reed of Patricia, Helen … and many who think they brought freedom to WC on their own. They will fight for positions even worse then ANC cadres, but probably everything is better then what we have now. There will be some hope for children and grand children!

  17. Is this not further dividing the parties ensuring an ANC win….. how are you going to get Capeexit and the others on board to ensure the figures are all together for be next vote …. this is all u guys should be thinking about….. to ensure the numbers

  18. I moved to Cape Town from Johannesburg 4 years ago. I love Cape Town and will never move back to any other part of the country. But I must say, I have noticed the decline in Cape Town over the 4 years….Its like a slow sinking ship. The beggars at the intersections, “workers” sleeping on the sidewalks, violent protests, burning and looting are all increasing. And strangely enough (or not at all), it seems to be more obvious around election time – almost as if the ruling party sends people here to vote….. I consider myself a God-fearing, right-leaning centrist, with good old conservative values – DEFINITELY NOT A RACIST. I don’t care if the president of the country is pink, purple, blue, yellow, black or white….I care that he runs the country ethically and efficiently, with fairness for ALL its people. If secession is the only way to save the Cape from the corrupt ANC, I am all for it…..But get it done before its too late!

    • Your situation is like the majority of people in Cape Town: Economic migrants from elsewhere, who want to scapegoat muh ANC for issues, and now you think that secession will solve those issues.

      It may come as a surprise, but most people in the country are God-fearing, right-leaning centrists, with good old conservative values. That is precisely why the ANC started splintering into COPE, and why a woke DA is failing to gain traction.

  19. This just again confirms why we will never be strong enough to live our dream of independence. We never stand together! Everyone have the same idea but everyone wants to form his own body to do it. Isn’t there strength in numbers? Can’t all these groups with this one idea come together and form one strong body. Stand together and we will be able to break away and decide our own destiny. We have the experts and our dream can be realised, but then we must all unite!!

    • If every person interested in WC independence stood together and voted in favour of secession in the referendum, it would only show 2 things: 1. There are still not enough people who support the idea of the WC breaking away, especially not in the rest of the country, and 2. the WC cannot stand together with the rest of the country against the ANC.

  20. I note that the international community did nothing when China arrested 4 people who were campaigning for Hong Kong’s independence. I also note that they did nothing about Mugabe’s illegal actions. What makes you so sure that the ANC won’t simply kick out our government and appoint one of their own?

  21. Yes,we don’t have a homogeneous group that will stick together,our geography sucks, and the WC is simply too important to the rest of the country. Asking for Robben Island would be a lot easier.

  22. Lots of comments with lots of reasons why it won’t work. Let’s rather use this opportunity to build up momentum and get this show on the road. We can sort out the details later.

  23. There is a simple reason why this is laughable:
    It’s too late!
    Integration is too extensive; you cannot stir the honey back out of the porridge.

  24. Oh dear…back we lot go, splinter groups wherever you look…each with their own “best” policy…Secession is a lekker talking point but if WC cannot set up a hard border and defend it, it will just not be viable or recognised by the UN. And to Helgard, please use common, plain language so that everyone understands what you are trying to put across, not just your liberal-whatever soulmates.

    • Oh there we go, another live wire who still has a working brain. Secession is not a realistic solution unless at the very least you have the geography helping you out, like the original 1776 Brexit has shown. The Western Cape’s entire economy currently relies on economic migrants from the rest of the country settling there. I wonder if AGOA terms would still cover the WC if they go solo? That’s besides the obvious immediate effect of an extra toll charge for trading with the rest of the country, I am not sure if the WC would even have the same terms or be able to negotiate more favourable terms if it’s standing on its own feet. The clotest WC came to standing on its own feet was taking a bath in a skottel because they can’t even sort out their own water despite having a separate political party, a different provincial government, and its own water source.

  25. Being a committed follower of Jesus Christ I speak from a Christian perspective. The ANC follows a man made philosophy, not Jesus Christ’s teachings. They will thus inevitably form a bad government. The evidence of bad government is all around us. Unfortunately, despite their bad governance the ANC still has the support of the majority of the electorate. The options for minorities, it seems to me, are, immigrate, if you can, stay and sink with a unitary SA, or work for the legal secession of minorities from an SA [mis]governed by the ANC. I
    choose the last option.

  26. Check the weather, it might snow because I disagree fundamentally with Ivo on the idea of secession. Especially for a region like the Western Cape. It’s just not feasible, being one of the multi-cultural hot spots of the country, for the WC to go solo because it does not tick any of the self-determination boxes. There is no reason for anyone outside of WC to vote in favour of the idea, and what is there to gain for the rest of the country? What is the one thing that binds people in the WC together in a way that would justify any notion of self-determination, as defined by the UN? We’ve got our own fuzzy-feelgood Constitution showing yet another useless diatribe in claiming we all have the right to self-determination, but does it extend to a bunch of conflicted individuals, mostly consisting of economic migrants from other provinces, who just want to be left to the mercy of their own administrators? Well, they have that already…

    More pragmatically, the WC already has ‘socialist water’, and like Ivo rightly pointed out: They have their own water source, and the maladministration there is trying to paint the picture that they had water shortages because of a failure from Pretoria. Nonsense. It as a provincial and local failure to act on advice when the dams were full and a drought was predicted by pretty much everyone except the DA mayor of Cape Town. Nothing to do with the ANC, nothing to do with Pretoria, nothing to do with a rich and diverse culture unique and distinct from the rest of the beloved country – it falls squarely on the WC administration.

    It’s also not true, historically speaking, that South Africa as a country is merely a colonial construct. Nor is this an argument against South Africa as an union, nor is it relevant. It’s all colonial constructs: You want to live in and work in a colony, but you still want close ties with your parent country.

    What does this all amount to? Just more externalities when WC wants to trade with the rest of the country, and vice versa. WC exceptionalism pipe dreams.

  27. Independence nowhere near as easy to obtain as fans of independence would like to believe

    In the letter, ‘’There is room in International law for independence’’, the leader of the Cape Independence Advocacy Group, Phil Craig, admits that the South African constitution does not explicitly provide for the Western Cape to secede (break away from the rest of the country) and also concedes that the United Nations is not going to force the South African government to allow it to do so. In addition, he agrees that a referendum is not legally binding, but nevertheless insists that independence is indeed possible. In doing so he argues that all the Western Cape needs to do (after winning a referendum) is to obtain recognition as an independent country from the international community. Unfortunately, he does not provide a single example of a country that received its independence without a fight or a prolonged struggle and his argument is therefore highly uncompelling. Suffice it to say that the Palestinian people have a lot more in common with each other than the inhabitants of the Western Cape, have been fighting for their independence for longer than most people can remember, and have the support of the international community as well as International Court of Justice.
    Clearly, obtaining independence is nowhere near as easy to obtain as fans of independence would like us to believe.
    Tibet provides further evidence of this, as does Yugoslavia which, following the secession of several constituent republics, fell victim to a brutal civil-war.

    Besides, the prognosis for a ‘’people’’ unified only by a hatred of the ANC and its policies, is exceedingly poor. Blacks, Whites and Coloureds, as well as Souties and Afrikaners, would probably be at each others throats within hours, with each group insisting that the Atlantic Sea Board belongs to them.How this would impact on the Republic of Hout Bay is a question better left for another day.
    Time does not grow on trees.

    Terence Grant
    Cape Town
    PS:It seems that the Cape Independence Advocacy Group is a front for the Institute of Race Relations, which until recently employed Helen Zille.On this point one notes that the leader of the CIAG ,Phil Craig, regularly describes himself as a ‘family man’’ but is reality an author at The Daily Friend, the online newspaper owned by IRR.
    41] UN Independent Expert on the Promotion of a democratic and equitable International Order, Alfred de Zayas, relied on the “Kirby definition” [42] in his 2014 Report to the General Assembly A/69/272 as “a group of persons with a common historical tradition, racial or ethnic identity, cultural homogeneity, linguistic unity, religious or ideological affinity, territorial connection,or common economic life. To this should be added a subjective element: the will to be identified as a people and the consciousness of being a people.”.[43]

  28. I can see why this has its attraction. But how will we ever get the ANC, or even more radical and destructive successors, out of power if people with more noble intentions keep on leaving? Either individually by emigration or, as proposed, by mass succession? Assuming that the latter could even be achieved without war. Or a somewhat more shabby South African version of USSR tanks (those with batteries that haven’t been pilfered) crushing the Prague Spring. The ANC also has other national-socialist role models like the repression of Hong Kong, or nearer to home, Zimbabwe’s armed coup to “liberate” the people.

  29. After giving this more serious thought, the only way to truly have freedom and to allow people to choose who runs the country, is to break up the monopoly and control of the media. We never, ever get the truth on the mainstream media – ever. It just doesn’t happen. The DA can go take a hike unless the people in there are willing to be 100% accountable for their actions. We need to stop transgender, stop geoengineering and stop medical tyranny. We also need to stop 5G. Schools need to stop their New World Order agendas. We need to stop the Cultural Marxists in the schools and universities. In order for us to stop this, we need to get rid of the top politicians. But first, we need to educate people with the truth via a mass media campaign. Encourage people to think for themselves and to investigate things very carefully. The first organisations to be banned should be the UN, the WHO and any other NWO society. Certain people will be banned including Bill Gates, George Soros and anyone who supports them. Only once we can clear out the paedophiles, Satanists and other undesirables can we get the country we deserve.

  30. Interesting article. Singapore is a thriving economy. Singapore was part of Malaysia but they decided they wanted to path they own destiny. Singapore parted ways with Malaysia, they do maintain cordial relations and they are both prosperous economies. Luxembourg is a city-state in Europe… a small country surrounded by powerful Germany, France and Belgium… yet they are independent and they are prosperous…


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